"Iso-sets and Iso-As" as Key to Understanding Radioactivity ?

Iso-sets, A Key to Understanding Radioactivity?

The prefix, “iso-” is used in Chemistry to mean “same.”  Attached to some unit, it says, “This is the name of a set of units which are much the same in some way. Iso-bars are atoms which have very nearly the same atomic weights.  Iso-mers are collections of atoms, or of any units, actually, which are made up of the same kinds of units attached together in different ways  Iso-topes are atoms which are considered to be forms of the same element as they have very closely related chemistry in most ways.

All of these are are sets of things made up of electrons and protons.  One can go to what might be called a fundamental set idea, an “Iso-set” which would contain all of the units which could be made up from a given number of electrons and protons.  In this type of definition, “Iso-set-1,0″ would be the electron, Iso-set-0,1, the proton. Iso-set-1,1 would have three characterized members, the subset,  {e, p}  ,  the neutron, and the Hydrogen atom. Iso-set-2,1 would include, {e, e, p; ‘”eep” (a central aggregate), and Hydride ion}. The “2,2” set includes the H:H molecule and the Deuterium Atom, an unspecified, as yet, central aggregate, and all possible combinations of previous sets.

As each succeeding set contains all possible combinations of smaller sets, this becomes complex very rapidly and may seem so obvious as to be trivial.  However, one interesting observation arises. In any given set there is a possible central aggregate of all the units of the set,  an “Iso-set Aggregate,” an “Iso-A.” which would be the “Residence” of the highest “mass/energy” states of the set and would have all of the electrons confined within, or very closely associated to, the volume defined by the motions of the protons. These Iso-A’s could be formed as very short-lived, transient species during high-energy vibrations of atoms or simple molecules and would on most occasions simply revert to the original atom or molecule.  However, on rare occasions they can undergo change to a form which will  revert not to the original form but to some other unit.   Iso-A units of larger sets, while fitting the criterion of having all electrons and protons together within the relatively small space defined by the protons, would have a possibility of a number of isomeric forms depending upon the geometry of the proton cluster.  Some theoreticians have used essentially this idea in terms of Iso-sets of equal numbers of electrons and protons defining what they call “poly-neutrons” for essentially the same units which this writer is defining as “Iso-A.”  This writer prefers his own notation on two grounds. It will cover all possible sets, even positively charged sets. It also does not give the impression that neutrons can exist as such in aggregates.

 [As the neutron is definitely unstable with respect to the electron and proton, this writer does not not agree with the conventional wisdom that atomic nuclei are made up of protons and neutrons but rather, is inclined to think that the situation is more a matter of all electrons being involved throughout the atom.  This, however, should be the topic of another essay. If, by “poly-neutron” were meant  “a neutral unit which has some of the characteristics of a neutron,” then, this writer would have much less problem with the “poly-neutron” terminology. ]

Any Iso-A set would have within it the potential to decompose to any combination of units of smaller sets and would be thermodynamically unstable with respect to such decomposition.  Collapse to an electron (the Iso-A of  “set-1,0) and  a cation  accounts for many radioactive transformations, e.g. neutron [Iso-A of set-1,1 (?)], to a proton and electron. All other  Beta-particle radioactivity can be explained similarly.  An atom reaches an isomeric Iso-A state which does not revert to the original atom but to a cation by loss of an electron. Alpha particle emission involves the spinning off of an Alpha Particle which is usually considered to be the same as  the nucleus of  a Helium 4 atom.  It might be better to consider that the Alpha particle may itself be  an Iso-A unit of Set-2,4 which can change in such a way as to become, eventually, Helium4  after gaining two electrons. For the Alpha-emitters the unit left behind is a di-anion rather than a cation.  The Iso-A explanation can be extended to all nuclear transforms with appropriate modification of what is seen to be happening.  Positron emission would involve interaction with  Iso-set-0,0.  The parent set that this writer considers may be  pervasive and  may contain a “zerotron” unit splittable by “pair-production” into a proton and electron and deformable into  a neutron under certain conditions.  This “0.0” set would normally be considered in set theory as the Null or Empty set.  It nature it may perhaps be better considered as the “Originating Set, the Set which links our Universe of Electrons and Protons to the Reciprocal Anti-Universe.”

Fission reactions initiated by neutron absorption can be explained by the idea that the collapse of a neutron  to an electron and proton within a nucleus or adjacent to it releases so much energy–causes so much motion– that the nucleus is lifted to an Iso-A state which can not revert to a an atom isomer and flies apart into large fragments….

One notes that Iso-As of neutral units, atoms and molecules could be considered as “poly-neutrons”  a term that has appeared in the literature.  If it be taken that this means, “units that may be considered as ‘polymers of neutrons’ within which the neutrons have no individual identity’ ” the writer has little objection to the nomenclature.  The Iso-A concept simply includes these and any other central aggregate units, charged or uncharged which can be considered.   Iso-As of huge sets may well be what are known an “neutron stars” and Quasars which may well be the “Isotope Factories of the Universe.”  Iso-As of that magnitude would be capable of spinning off much larger entities than Beta particles, Alpha particles, neutrons or Positrons, very possibly they could spin off units as large as our trans-Uranium elements….  Recently, it has been reported that heavy elements have been detected as emissions from Quasars.

Iso-sets can be used to set up a matrix for keeping track of nuclear transformations.  One interesting project is a matrix tracking the self-destruction of the  “8,8-Set” atoms down through Be8 to two Helium4 atoms.

If the Iso-A of a set is too close in form to any of the atom isomers that it could be transformed into, of course, neither it nor any of the atomic forms will be seen as stable entities. The neutron fits the criterion of an Iso-A as it is a central unit wherein all the electrons are confined within the shell defined by the protons. It may be the only known  Iso-A to have appreciable life-time.

Iso-set and Iso-A set considerations may give explanations for much of the work in the field sometimes called “Cold Fusion.”  For instance, the production of He4 and excess energy in certain electrolysis reactions with “Heavy Water” may well be  through the transformation of  highly energetic Deuterium Molecules into an Iso-4,4A state which then either reverts directly to He4 or to a cation which can revert to a He4 energy state.

It might not be a bad idea to keep the Iso-set/Iso-A set ideas in the back of one’s mind in considering any chemical or neuclear reaction.